Anglo-Catholicism

1828 repeal of Test and Corporations Act meant MPs no longer required to be Anglican.

1829 Catholic Emancipation Act meant MPs no longer required to be Protestant.

1828-41 John Henry Newman (1801-90) became vicar of St. Mary's University Church, Oxford. There he preached Tractarian ideas to the future clergy of Church of England.

1833 John Keble (1792-1866) preaches Assize Sermon on National Apostasy, objecting to a non-Anglican Parliament suppressing 10 Irish bishoprics.

1833 Newman publishes 3 religious tracts (pamphlets).

1833 Hurrell Froude (1803-36), William Palmer (1811-78) and Hugh James Rose (1795-1838) form a society to defend Church of England against the threat of disestablishment from the Reform Parliament of 1832. Keble and Newman invited to join. Their views on restoring the catholicity of the Church of England are expressed through the Tracts for the Times, hence the name Tractarians.

1833 Edward Bouverie Pusey (1800-82) joined the Tractarians and wrote Tract 17 (Fasting). He was the first to initial his work and wrote a long treatise. Later his Tract on Baptism ran to 400 pages and was published as Tracts 77-79. He was the most prominent intellectual and gave the movement respectability, so much so that many termed them Puseyites.

1838 Froude died and Keble and Newman edited his papers as Remains. This was very pro-Roman Catholic and caused great controversy. Froude also bequeathed his Roman Missal to Newman, encouraging this ex-evangelical leader of the movement to become more Catholic.

1839 John Mason Neale (1818-1866) founded Cambridge Camden Society (the Cambridge Movement), which encouraged a return to medieval architecture and vestments and worship styles. This led to the Ritualist movement within the Tractarians. Note, that Keble and Pusey opposed it.

1841 some younger Tractarians were becoming more Catholic in reaction to evangelicals becoming more Protestant. Newman wrote Tract 90 to keep the former within the Church of England. It is he argued that the 39 Articles contained nothing that could not cohere with Roman doctrine.

1841 controversy over Tract 90 led Bishop of Oxford to order cessation of the Tracts. Newman obliged and quit the Oxford Movement, while many of the Catholic wing became Roman Catholics.

1840s young Tractarian priests denied posts, so they turn to the new working-class parishes, developing the tradition of the slum priest.

1843 Pusey removed as University Preacher on a charge of heresy.

1844 W.G. Ward (1812-82) published The Ideal of a Christian Church, in which the ideal was Rome. He was stripped of his Oxford degrees.

1845 Newman (and Ward) become Roman Catholics leading to another large exodus from Church of England. Pusey and Keble remained with the former becoming the leader of the movement.

1845 Pusey founds an Anglican religious order for women.

1851 Gorham Case in which an ecclesiastical court's decision (to censure a cleric who did not believe in baptismal regeneration) was overturned by the Privy Council. Many Anglo-Catholics left in protest, including Henry Manning, later a Roman Catholic Cardinal.

1854 first Tractarian bishop, but few others as Queen Victoria was broad church (opposing both evangelical and Tractarian movements).

1856 English Church Union formed to advance the cause ritualism.

1864 Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals together organise a petition against the liberal Essays and Reviews (1860). It is signed by 10,906 clerics, nearly 50% of the United Church of England and Ireland.

1865 evangelical Church Association formed to oppose ritualism.

1868 William Gladstone (College Founder) first Anglo-Catholic Tractarian Prime Minister.

1877 Stewart Hedlam founds Guild of St. Matthew, an Anglo-Catholic socialist movement.

1889 Charles Gore edits Lux Mundi leading to the development of the liberal Anglo-Catholicism that has dominated 20th Century Anglicanism.



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