John Henry Newman

1800 Act of Union creates United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United Church of England and Ireland

1801 Newman born in London 21st February

1801 end of Napoleonic Wars leads to collapse of father's bank

1802 goes to Trinity College, Oxford and undergoes Evangelical conversion

1803 becomes fellow of Oriel College, Oxford and becomes High Church

1804 becomes vicar of St. Mary's the University Church (remaining an Oriel fellow)

1805 repeal of Test and Corporation Acts allows Dissenters to sit in Parliament

1806 Catholic Emancipation Act allows Roman Catholics to sit in Parliament

1807 Whig government elected on a platform to reform the Church of England

1808 21 bishops help to throw out first Reform Bill in the Lords

1833 Keble preached Assize Sermon in St. Mary's against the Irish Church Temporalities Bill that became law on 14th August and suppressed 8 bishoprics and 2 archbishoprics.

1833 first Tracts for the Times in response to John Keble's Assize Sermon published by the Tractarians or Oxford Movement. Leading figures were Newman, Keble, Hurrell Froude and EB Pusey.

1837 Queen Victoria is crowned.

1838 Newman's Tract 90 is seen to be too Roman Catholic and Newman agrees to stop the Tracts. He also goes into semi-retirement at Littlemore, where he had built a daughter church for St. Mary's. In response several Tractarians become Roman Catholics, while others become broad church and later liberals.

1841-45 Newman agonises over whether to become a Roman Catholic.

1845 converts to Roman Catholicism and many follow suit.

1846-47 training for ordination in Rome.

1850 restoration of Catholic hierarchy and anti-Catholic reactions in England

1851 Newman found guilty of libel against Giacinto Achilli.

1853-58 Newman's troubled period as first Rector of The Catholic University of Ireland.

1856 English Church Union formed to work for ritualist ceremonial in Anglican worship.

1859 Newman reported to the Vatican for heresy over his article in The Rambler later published as On Consulting the Faithful in Matters of Doctrine.

1860 Newman's Apologia Pro Sua Vita published in response to Charles Kingsley's anti-Catholic remarks.

1865 Church Association formed to campaign against ritualism through the courts.

1869 Irish Church Act disestablishes the Church of Ireland, which then enacts anti-ritualist canons.

1870 Vatican I declares papal infallibility.

1871 Newman's Letter to the Duke of Norfolk published in response to Gladstone's claims that Catholics could not be loyal English citizens.

1872 Newman made first honorary fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.

1873 Newman died on 11th August.


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