Martin Luther

1483-Nov-10 Martin Luther born in Eisleben.

1501 Luther began his studies at the University of Erfurt.

1502 Elector Frederick of Saxony set up the University of Wittenberg.

1505 Luther completed his basic degree and began studying law.

1505-Jul-17 Luther abandoned law and entered the Erfurt house of the Order of the Hermits of St Augustine.

1507-Apr-03 Luther ordained priest.

1508 Luther first taught at the University of Wittenberg as a substitute lecturer in moral philosophy.

1509 Luther completed his theology degree and returned to Erfurt.

1510 Luther represented the Augustinian Hermits in Rome.

1511 Luther took up a professorship at the University of Wittenberg.

1512-May-03 Fifth Lateran Council begins under Pope Julius II.

1512-Oct-19 Luther awarded a doctorate in theology.

1513-Mar-11 Leo X became pope.

1513-Dec-19 Pope Leo declared at the eighth session of the Fifth Lateran Council that any teaching contrary to the Catholic faith is forbidden and such teachers should be both avoided and punished.

1514-Mar-09 Albrecht of Brandenberg elected Archbishop of Mainz.

1515-Mar-31 Pope Leo X grants plenary indulgences (pardons of all sins) for those donating to the rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica in Rome.

1515-May-04 Pope Leo X at the Fifth Lateran Council decreed that books should not be published without first being approved by church authorities. Those who publish without such permission should be excommunicated.

1517-Jan-22 Johann Tetzel appointed as the Archbishop of Mainz's principal preacher of the sale of St Peter's indulgences.

1517-Feb-24 Luther preached against the sale of indulgences in neighbouring Ducal Saxony.

1517-Mar-16 Final session of the Fifth Lateran Council.

1517-Sep-04 Luther published his Disputation Against Scholastic Theology (97 Theses).

1517-Oct-31 Luther wrote to the Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz and enclosed his Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences (95 Theses).

1517-Dec 95 Theses appeared in print in Basel, Leipzig, and Nuremberg, although who published them is unknown.

1517-Dec-24 the first German translation of the 95 Theses appeared around this time, possibly translated by Nuremberg city councillor Kasper Nutzel.

1518 Philip Melancthon took up a lectureship at Wittenberg University.

1518-Jan-20 Dominican regular chapter in Frankfurt an der Oder held a disputation on Luther's 95 Theses based around the 106 Frankfurt Theses written by Konrad Wimpina, but often attributed to the chief promoter of indulgences Johannes the discussion.

1518-Feb-15 Luther wrote to Elector Frederick's secretary George Spalatin offering to be placed on trial, rather than have Elector Frederick condemned for supporting him.

1518-Mar-05 Luther wrote to Christopher Scheurl about his regret that he had written the 95 Theses and that they had been spread among the populace.

1518-Mar Luther published his Sermon on Indulgences and Grace. This was the first work that he wrote in German for publication.

1518-Apr Tetzel published his Rebuttal to Luther's Sermon on Indulgences and Grace.

1518-Apr-26 Heidelberg Disputation. Luther defended his 95 Theses at the General Chapter of the Augustinian Hermits in Germany. He developed his theology of the cross.

1518-May Karlstadt published his 380 Articles against Tetzel and Eck.

1518-May-30 Luther wrote to Pope Leo X and claimed that he had never sought to diminish papal authority. He sought the pope's protection for his views, university and Elector Frederick. Luther submitted himself to the pope's decision, even if it meant his death.

1518-Jul-10 Luther wrote to Wenzelaus Linck complaining about the death threats he faced.

1518-Aug Emperor Maximilian condemned Luther as a heretic.

1518-Oct-12 Luther summoned to Augsburg to meet Cardinal Thomas Cajetan, where Luther refused to recant. Cajetan also met Luther on each of the next two days. Luther was threatened with excommunication.

1518-Oct-17 Luther (at the behest of Staupitz and Linck) wrote to Cajetan that he had shown a lack of humility as well as a lack of respect to Archbishop Albrecht.

1518-Oct-20 Luther helped to escape arrest in Augsburg.

1518-Oct-25 Cajetan wrote to Elector Frederick demanding that he hand over Luther or banish him from his territory.

1518-Nov-29 Luther wrote to Elector Frederick offering to leave Electoral Saxony so that the elector's reputation would not be harmed. Luther also claimed that even his friends were unaware of his 95 Theses before they were published.

1519-Jan Luther wrote to Elector Frederick that he was prepared to be silent on the matter of indulgences and to write a book calling for the people to be loyal to the church. Written after he met the papal emissary Karl von Miltitz.

1519-Mar-03 Luther wrote to Pope Leo X repeating the offer he made to Elector Frederick.

1519-Mar-13 Luther wrote to Elector Frederick that he would have to break his silence as Johann Eck wished to hold a public disputation with him.

1519-Jun-27 Leipzig Disputation between Johann Eck and first Andreas Karlstadt and then Martin Luther. Leipzig was in Ducal Saxony and became a centre for opposition to the Protestant Reformation of Electoral Saxony.

1519-Jun-28 Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor.

1519-Jul-04 Johannes Tetzel died.

1519-Jul-16 Leipzig Disputation ended.

1520 Wenzelaus Linck succeeded Johann von Staupitz as vicar general of the Augustinian Hermits.

1520-Jun-15 Pope Leo X issued encyclical Exsurge Domine, which gave Luther 60 days to recant or face excommunication.Using Luther's writings was banned.

1520-Jul-10 Luther wrote to Spalatin that he might be forced into exile and had friends in Bohemia who would protect him. He threatened to publicly burn the canon law and had given up on reconciliation with the papacy.

1520-Aug Luther published To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation.

1520-Oct-06 Luther issued his On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, in which he called for copies of the 95 Theses to be destroyed because his theology in 1517 was too superstitious.

1520-Oct-13 Luther wrote to Pope Leo X calling him the Antichrist.

1520-Nov Luther published On the Freedom of a Christian.

1520-Dec-10 Luther publicly burned both Exsurge Domine and the book of canon law.

1520-Dec-21 Luther wrote to Spalatin declaring that he did not fear a summons by Emperor Charles V and would neither flee nor recant.

1521-Apr-17 Diet of Worms at which was put Luther on trial for heresy.

1521-Apr-18 at Diet of Worms Luther refused to recant, but did not say "Here I stand."

1521-May-25 Emperor Charles V issued Edict of Worms, which made Luther a criminal and outlawed reading his books.

1521 Luther hidden in Wartburg Castle by Elector Frederick.

1521-Dec-01 Pope Leo X died.

1521-Dec-25 Karlstadt celebrated mass in German.

1522-Jan-09 Pope Adrian VI elected. He was a former tutor of Emperor Charles V and like the emperor was born in the Burgundian Netherlands, which was the first Hapsburg land that Charles ruled.

1522-Mar-06 Luther returned to Wittenberg.

1522 Luther no longer considered an outlaw.

1523 Luther published his Formaulae Missae, a revised version of the Latin mass that removed the doctrines that Luther had been condemning since 1520: transubstantiation and the notion of the mass as a sacrifice.

1523-Apr-07 several nuns from Nimbschen fled their convent for Wittenberg, including Katharina von Bora.

1523-Jul-01 at Antwerp Heinrich Voes and John Esch became the first Lutheran martyrs.

1523-Dec-14 Pope Adrian VI died. There would not be another non-Italian pope for four centuries.

1523-Nov-19 Pope Clement VII elected. He was the cousin of Pope Leo X and raised by the previous pope's father, Lorenzo de Medici.

1524 Peasants War began.

1524-Oct-09 Luther abandons wearing his Augustinian habit.

1525 Luther published Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes condemning the Peasants Revolt.

1525-May-05 Elector Frederick died.

1525 English Bible translator William Tyndale visited Luther in Wittenberg.

1525 first Lutheran ordination in Wittenberg.

1525 Martin Luther and Katharina von Bora married.

1526-Jan Luther published the German Mass.

1526 Diet of Speyer granted German princes the right to determine the religion in their principality.

1526 Tyndale's English New Testament published in Worms and smuggled into England.

1529-Apr Second Diet of Speyer resulted in Lutheran princes signing a protest, which gave rise to the name Protestant.

1529-Oct-02 Marburg Colloquy at which Luther, Melancthon, Zurich reformer Ulrich Zwingli, and Strasbourg reformer Martin Bucer sought to resolve their differences over the doctrine of the eucharist or Lord's Supper. Luther refused to compromise.

1530-Jun-25 Diet of Augsburg at which the Augsburg Confession was presented to Emperor Charles V. The protestants presented articles of doctrine, but differences between the Lutherans and Zwinglians could not be resolved.

1530-Nov-19 Recess of the 1530 Diet of Augsburg signed by Emperor Charles V and many of the catholic territories of the Holy Roman Empire. It demanded that the protestant territories return to Catholicism by 15 April 1531.

1531-Oct-11 Zwingli killed while working as a military chaplain at the Battle of Kappel between Swiss Catholic cantons and Zurich.

1534 King Henry VIII declared head of the Church of England despite his earlier opposition to Protestantism, which led to the martyrdom of William Tyndale.

1534-Sep-25 Pope Clement VII died.

1534-Oct-15 Pope Paul III elected.

1535-May Tyndale arrested and imprisoned in Antwerp.

1536 Luther published his German translation of the Bible.

1536 John Calvin published his Institutes of Christian Religion.

1536-Oct-06 Tyndale killed and then burnt at the stake for heresy in Antwerp.

1538 Luther wrote his anti-Jewish Against the Sabbatarians.

1539 Saxony officially embraced Lutheranism.

1541 Calvin began his Genevan reformation.

1543 Luther published his On the Jews and Their Lies.

1544 Sweden embraced Lutheranism as the state religion.

1545-Sep Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz died.

1545-Dec Council of Trent opened at which the Catholic Church was reformed in opposition to Protestantism.

1546-Feb-18 Luther died in his birthplace Eisleben.

1546-Feb-22 Luther buried in the Wittenberg castle grounds.

1546-Jul Emperor Charles V launched a war against the Schmalkaldic League of German protestant princes.

1547-Jan-13 Decree on Justification promulgated at the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent.

1547-Jan-28 King Henry VIII of England died.

1547-Mar-31 King Francis I of France died.

1547-Apr-24 Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League at the Battle of Muhlberg in Electoral Saxony. Elector John Frederick I of Saxony and Philip of Hesse were captured.

1547 John Frederick resigned as Elector after the capitulation of Wittenberg in exchange for his life. Electoral Saxony was amalgamated with Ducal Saxony under the rule of Duke Maurice.

1548-Jun-30 Augsburg Interim declared by Emperor Charles V. It reimposed Catholic practices on the lands of the former Schmalkaldic League. It was called as interim as the pronouncements of the Council of Trent was expected to replace it. Most Lutherans rejected the interim.

1548-Dec-22 Leipzig Interim declared at Leipzig Diet called by Elector Maurice of Saxony. It was a compromise document produced by Melancthon that maintained Lutheran doctrines while accepting Catholic ritual.

1549 Philip Melancthon's Life and Acts of Dr Martin Luther published.

1549-Nov-10 Pope Clement VII died.

1550-Feb-07 Pope Julius III elected.

1550 Emperor Charles V made heresy punishable by death.

1552-Mar Elector Maurice signed a treaty with King Henry II of France and led an army into southern Germany that defeated Charles V.

1552-Aug Treaty of Passau saw the end of the Augsburg Interim and the release from prison of John Frederick and Philip Hesse.

1552-Dec-20 Katharina von Bora died.

1553 Queen Mary returned England to Catholicism.

1554-Jul-25 Queen Mary married King Philip II of Spain and they acted as co-regents of England.

1555-Sep-25 Peace of Augsburg made it imperial law that princes could choose either Lutheranism or Catholicism as their territory's religion and dissenters were free to move to a territory that matched their religious outlook.

1555-May-23 Pope Julius III died.

1555-Apr-09 Pope Marcellus II elected.

1555-May-01 Pope Marcellus II died.

1555-May-23 Pope Paul IV elected.

1556-Jan-16 Emperor Charles V abdicated.

1557-Sep-11 Colloquy of Worms opened to attempt to reunite Catholics and Lutherans.

1557-Oct-08 Colloquy of Worms breaks up in part because there was no unity among the Protestant traditions.

1558-Sep-21 Charles V died.

1558-Nov-17 Queen Mary of England died. Her sister Elizabeth succeeded her and restored Henry VIII's moderate style of Protestantism.

1559 John Knox introduced Calvinism to Scotland.

1559-Aug-18 Pope Paul IV died.

1560-Apr-19 Melancthon died.

1564-May-27 Calvin died in Geneva.


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